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We cannot predict exactly which atom will decay at a certain time but we can estimate, using the half-life, how many will decay over a period of time.

The half-life of a substance can be found by measuring the count-rate of the substance with a Geiger-Muller tube over a period of time.

Half-life - is the time it takes for half of the radioactive particles to decay.

It is also the time it takes for the count-rate of a substance to reduce to half of the original value.

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If the radiation source is outside of the body it must be able to penetrate to the required depth in the body.

The more radiation that is absorbed by the film the darker the colour it will go when it is developed. As the half-life is very long for Carbon-14, objects that are thousands of years old can be compared to new substances and the change in the amount of Carbon-14 can date the object.

This is useful for people working with radiation, they wear radiation badges to show them how much radiation they are being exposed to. Dating materials - The older a radioactive substance is the less radiation it will release. The half-life of the radioactive substance can be used to find the age of an object containing that substance. ii) Uranium decays by a series of disintegrations that eventually produces a stable isotope of lead.

This means all living things have radioactive carbon-14 in them.

When an organism, eg a tree, dies it stops taking in carbon dioxide.

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