The establishment clause prohibits congress from mandating a state

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Using a newly available nationally representative data set that includes a test of mental function for children aged eight to twelve months, we find only minor racial differences in test outcomes (0.06 standard deviation units in the raw data) between Blacks and Whites that disappear with the inclusion of a limited set of controls.

Relative to Whites, children of all other races lose ground by age two.

And, if this be true, it is simply incredible that, when all his disabilities are removed, and our prognathous [having a projecting lower jaw] has a fair field and no favor, as well as no oppressor, he will be able to compete successfully with his bigger-brained and smaller-jawed rival, in a contest which is to be carried on by thoughts and not by bites.[17] Mr.

[Herbert] Spencer stands upon his own ground, invoking, instead of the experiences of the individual, the registered experiences of the race. The human brain is the “organized register of infinitely numerous experiences received during the evolution of life, or rather during the evolution of that series of organisms through which the human organism has been reached.

At the same time the anthropomorphous [human-like] apes … The break between man and his nearest allies will then be wider, for it will intervene between man in a more civilized state, as we may hope, even than the Caucasian, and some ape as low as a baboon, instead of as now between the negro or Australian and the gorilla.[15] It may be quite true that some negroes are better than some white men; but no rational man, cognizant of the facts, believes that the average negro is the equal, still less the superior, of the average white man.

First and foremost, we would like to state that we reject and disdain the notion that any particular race of people is superior or inferior to another.

Second, we contend this research proves that the differences between races are insignificant and superficial.

There is no reason why legal steps should not be taken which would insure a continuously progressive upward evolution.[28] * A 2015 serial work about academic theories on Africa describes “a significant body of modem scientific literature” from “comparative and evolutionary psychology” claiming that “sub-Saharan African populations have, on average, very low intelligence….” This scholarly text also: * Slavery has been widely practiced since the dawn of recorded history and up until recent centuries in places like China, India, Africa, England, Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, Scandinavia, and the Middle East.[37] * Slavery was officially instituted in Jamestown in 1640, Massachusetts in 1641, Connecticut in 1650, Virginia in 1661, Maryland in 1663, New York in 1665, and South Carolina in 1682.

By the early 1700s, all the colonies of British North America had legalized slavery.[39] [40] * In 1774, all of the British North American colonies except for Georgia formed an alliance to combat “a ruinous system of colony administration, adopted by the British ministry about the year 1763.” This coalition was called the “First Continental Congress.”[41] It’s articles of association stated: We will neither import nor purchase, any slave imported after the first day of December next; after which time, we will wholly discontinue the slave trade, and will neither be concerned in it ourselves, nor will we hire our vessels, nor sell our commodities or manufactures to those who are concerned in it.[42] We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.

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